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2.1 Transport Primitives
transport?
transport
transport-in
transport-out
transport-source
transport-dest
2.2 Transport Cleanup and Disposables
7.1

2 Transports

 (require net2/transport) package: net2

A transport is a means of reliably sending and receiving bytes between two named parties across some network. TCP connections over an IP network serve as a canonical example, with the two parties named by their IP addresses and port numbers. A transport pairs an input port and an output port with two authorities: one naming the party using those ports, and one naming the party "on the other end" of the connection. Transports can be directly constructed from ports with transport.

Transports do not have a notion of clients and servers — once established, a transport can be used for arbitrary bidirectional communication. For a high-level interface to client-server transport creation, see connectors and listeners. Also see the net2/system module for access to operating system transports such as TCP connections.

Transports are not thread safe in the sense that two threads attempting to serialize and deserialize complex messages directly to the same transport will interleave their bytes on the wire, leading to mangled and uninterpretable messages. To prevent threads from concurrently writing messages without opening multiple transports between the same authorities, use a dedicated thread for serializing and deserializing messages from a message buffer which other threads read and write messages to atomically instead of sharing the connection directly.

2.1 Transport Primitives

procedure

(transport? v)  boolean?

  v : any/c
Returns #t if v is a transport.

procedure

(transport #:in in    
  #:out out    
  #:source source    
  #:dest dest)  transport?
  in : input-port?
  out : output-port?
  source : authority?
  dest : authority?
Constructs a transport that acts as source communicating with dest by reading data from in and sending data to out. Using this constructor is expected to be rare; most transports are created with procedures like tcp-connect or tunneled over existing transports with procedures like tls-transport.

procedure

(transport-in trans)  input-port?

  trans : transport?

procedure

(transport-out trans)  output-port?

  trans : transport?

procedure

(transport-source trans)  authority?

  trans : transport?

procedure

(transport-dest trans)  authority?

  trans : transport?
Accessors for the various components of a transport as passed in to the transport constructor.

2.2 Transport Cleanup and Disposables

The transport API does not offer any means of directly overriding how a transport is shut down except for making custom ports that perform special cleanup actions when closed. Broadly, this is because there are only two kinds of cleanup actions one might want to perform on a transport:

System cleanup actions are usually associated directly with a single input port or output port not with the transport as a whole. As a result, it’s best to implement system cleanup within a custom port’s close procedure and rely on it being called when the port is closed or when the port’s custodian is shut down.

Connection cleanup actions involve coordination and communication with another party over a network. Connection cleanup is inherently unreliable. There is no way to guarantee that communication with the other party won’t abrubtly terminate at any point. Therefore, connection cleanup should be performed on a best effort basis that tolerates failure. It is inappropriate to perform connection cleanup actions during a custodian shutdown using ffi/unsafe/custodian, because custodian shutdowns are performed unsafely and expected to always succeed with very little (if any) IO.

To properly implement connection cleanup actions in transports, many interfaces in net2 require that connection cleanup logic is encapsulated in a disposable from the disposable library. This allows declaratively specifying how and when connection termination logic will execute, and reduces the complexity involved in adding timeout and early termination logic. See tcp-connector for an example of constructing transports with robust and graceful connection termination. Alternatively, refer to connectors and listeners for information on how they encapsulate connection termination with disposables and custodians.