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12.2 Syntax Object Content


(syntax? v)  boolean?

  v : any/c
Returns #t if v is a syntax object, #f otherwise. See also Syntax Objects.

> (syntax? #'quinoa)


> (syntax? #'(spelt triticale buckwheat))


> (syntax? (datum->syntax #f 'millet))


> (syntax? "barley")



(identifier? v)  boolean?

  v : any/c
Returns #t if v is a syntax object and (syntax-e stx) produces a symbol.

> (identifier? #'linguine)


> (identifier? #'(if wheat? udon soba))


> (identifier? 'ramen)


> (identifier? 15)



(syntax-source stx)  any/c

  stx : syntax?
Returns the source for the syntax object stx, or #f if none is known. The source is represented by an arbitrary value (e.g., one passed to read-syntax), but it is typically a file path string.


(syntax-line stx)  (or/c exact-positive-integer? #f)

  stx : syntax?
Returns the line number (positive exact integer) for the start of the syntax object in its source, or #f if the line number or source is unknown. The result is #f if and only if (syntax-column stx) produces #f. See also Counting Positions, Lines, and Columns.


(syntax-column stx)  (or/c exact-nonnegative-integer? #f)

  stx : syntax?
Returns the column number (non-negative exact integer) for the start of the syntax object in its source, or #f if the source column is unknown. The result is #f if and only if (syntax-line stx) produces #f. See also Counting Positions, Lines, and Columns.


(syntax-position stx)  (or/c exact-positive-integer? #f)

  stx : syntax?
Returns the character position (positive exact integer) for the start of the syntax object in its source, or #f if the source position is unknown. See also Counting Positions, Lines, and Columns.


(syntax-span stx)  (or/c exact-nonnegative-integer? #f)

  stx : syntax?
Returns the span (non-negative exact integer) in characters of the syntax object in its source, or #f if the span is unknown.


(syntax-original? stx)  boolean?

  stx : syntax?
Returns #t if stx has the property that read-syntax attaches to the syntax objects that they generate (see Syntax Object Properties), and if stx’s lexical information does not include any macro-introduction scopes (which indicate that the object was introduced by a syntax transformer; see Syntax Objects). The result is #f otherwise.

This predicate can be used to distinguish syntax objects in an expanded expression that were directly present in the original expression, as opposed to syntax objects inserted by macros.

The (hidden) property to represent original syntax is dropped for a syntax object that is marshaled as part of compiled code; see also current-compile.


(syntax-source-module stx [source?])

  (or/c module-path-index? symbol? path? resolved-module-path? #f)
  stx : syntax?
  source? : any/c = #f
Returns an indication of the module whose source contains stx, or #f if no source module for stx can be inferred from its lexical context. If source? is #f, then result is a module path index or symbol (see Compiled Modules and References) or a resolved module path; if source? is true, the result is a path or symbol corresponding to the loaded module’s source in the sense of current-module-declare-source.

Note that syntax-source-module does not consult the source location of stx. The result is based on the lexical information of stx.


(syntax-e stx)  any/c

  stx : syntax?
Unwraps the immediate datum structure from a syntax object, leaving nested syntax structure (if any) in place. The result of (syntax-e stx) is one of the following:

> (syntax-e #'a)


> (syntax-e #'(x . y))

'(#<syntax:eval:11:0 x> . #<syntax:eval:11:0 y>)

> (syntax-e #'#(1 2 (+ 3 4)))

'#(#<syntax:eval:12:0 1> #<syntax:eval:12:0 2> #<syntax:eval:12:0 (+ 3 4)>)

> (syntax-e #'#&"hello world")

'#&#<syntax:eval:13:0 "hello world">

> (syntax-e #'#hash((imperial . "yellow") (festival . "green")))

'#hash((festival . #<syntax:eval:14:0 "green">)

       (imperial . #<syntax:eval:14:0 "yellow">))

> (syntax-e #'#(point 3 4))

'#(#<syntax:eval:15:0 point> #<syntax:eval:15:0 3> #<syntax:eval:15:0 4>)

> (syntax-e #'3)


> (syntax-e #'"three")


> (syntax-e #'#t)


A syntax pair is a pair containing a syntax object as its first element, and either the empty list, a syntax pair, or a syntax object as its second element.

A syntax object that is the result of read-syntax reflects the use of delimited . in the input by creating a syntax object for every pair of parentheses in the source, and by creating a pair-valued syntax object only for parentheses in the source. See Reading Pairs and Lists for more information.

If stx is tainted or armed, then any syntax object in the result of (syntax-e stx) is tainted, and multiple calls to syntax-e may return values that are not eq?. For a stx that is not armed, the results from multiple calls to syntax-e of stx are eq?.


(syntax->list stx)  (or/c list? #f)

  stx : syntax?
Returns a list of syntax objects or #f. The result is a list of syntax objects when (syntax->datum stx) would produce a list. In other words, syntax pairs in (syntax-e stx) are flattened.

If stx is tainted or armed, then any syntax object in the result of (syntax->list stx) is tainted.

> (syntax->list #'())


> (syntax->list #'(1 (+ 3 4) 5 6))

'(#<syntax:eval:20:0 1>

  #<syntax:eval:20:0 (+ 3 4)>

  #<syntax:eval:20:0 5>

  #<syntax:eval:20:0 6>)

> (syntax->list #'a)



(syntax->datum stx)  any/c

  stx : syntax?
Returns a datum by stripping the lexical information, source-location information, properties, and tamper status from stx. Inside of pairs, (immutable) vectors, (immutable) boxes, immutable hash table values (not keys), and immutable prefab structures, syntax objects are recursively stripped.

The stripping operation does not mutate stx; it creates new pairs, vectors, boxes, hash tables, and prefab structures as needed to strip lexical and source-location information recursively.

> (syntax->datum #'a)


> (syntax->datum #'(x . y))

'(x . y)

> (syntax->datum #'#(1 2 (+ 3 4)))

'#(1 2 (+ 3 4))

> (syntax->datum #'#&"hello world")

'#&"hello world"

> (syntax->datum #'#hash((imperial . "yellow") (festival . "green")))

'#hash((festival . "green") (imperial . "yellow"))

> (syntax->datum #'#(point 3 4))

'#(point 3 4)

> (syntax->datum #'3)


> (syntax->datum #'"three")


> (syntax->datum #'#t)



(datum->syntax ctxt v [srcloc prop ignored])  syntax?

  ctxt : (or/c syntax? #f)
  v : any/c
  srcloc : 
(or/c syntax? #f
      (list/c any/c
              (or/c exact-positive-integer? #f)
              (or/c exact-nonnegative-integer? #f)
              (or/c exact-positive-integer? #f)
              (or/c exact-nonnegative-integer? #f))
      (vector/c any/c
               (or/c exact-positive-integer? #f)
               (or/c exact-nonnegative-integer? #f)
               (or/c exact-positive-integer? #f)
               (or/c exact-nonnegative-integer? #f)))
   = #f
  prop : (or/c syntax? #f) = #f
  ignored : (or/c syntax? #f) = #f
Converts the datum v to a syntax object. If v is already a syntax object, then there is no conversion, and v is returned unmodified. The contents of pairs, vectors, and boxes, the fields of prefab structures, and the values of immutable hash tables are recursively converted. The keys of prefab structures and the keys of immutable hash tables are not converted. Mutable vectors and boxes are replaced by immutable vectors and boxes. For any kind of value other than a pair, vector, box, immutable hash table, immutable prefab structure, or syntax object, conversion means wrapping the value with lexical information, source-location information, and properties after the value is interned via datum-intern-literal.

Converted objects in v are given the lexical context information of ctxt and the source-location information of srcloc. The resulting immediate syntax object from conversion is given the properties (see Syntax Object Properties) of prop (even the hidden ones that would not be visible via syntax-property-symbol-keys); if v is a pair, vector, box, immutable hash table, or immutable prefab structure, recursively converted values are not given properties. If ctxt is tainted or armed, then the resulting syntax object from datum->syntax is tainted. The code inspector of ctxt, if any, is compared to the code inspector of the module for the macro currently being transformed, if any; if both inspectors are available and if one is the same as or inferior to the other, then the result syntax has the same/inferior inspector, otherwise it has no code inspector.

Any of ctxt, srcloc, or prop can be #f, in which case the resulting syntax has no lexical context, source information, and/or new properties.

If srcloc is not #f or a syntax object, it must be a list or vector of five elements:

(list source-name line column position span)
or (vector source-name line column position span)

where source-name is an arbitrary value for the source name; line is an integer for the source line, or #f; column is an integer for the source column, or #f; position is an integer for the source position, or #f; and span is an integer for the source span, or #f. The line and column values must both be numbers or both be #f, otherwise the exn:fail:contract exception is raised.

Graph structure is not preserved by the conversion of v to a syntax object. Instead, v is essentially unfolded into a tree. If v has a cycle through pairs, vectors, boxes, immutable hash tables, and immutable prefab structures, then the exn:fail:contract exception is raised.

The ignored argument is allowed for backward compatibility and has no effect on the returned syntax object.


(syntax-binding-set? v)  boolean?

  v : any/c


(syntax-binding-set)  syntax-binding-set?


(syntax-binding-set->syntax binding-set    
  datum)  syntax?
  binding-set : syntax-binding-set?
  datum : any/c


  [#:source-symbol source-symbol 
  #:source-phase source-phase 
  #:nominal-module nominal-mpi 
  #:nominal-phase nominal-phase 
  #:nominal-symbol nominal-symbol 
  #:nominal-require-phase nominal-require-phase 
  #:inspector inspector]) 
  binding-set : syntax-binding-set?
  symbol : symbol?
  phase : (or/c exact-integer? #f)
  mpi : module-path-index?
  source-symbol : symbol? = symbol
  source-phase : (or/c exact-integer? #f) = phase
  nominal-mpi : module-path-index? = mpi
  nominal-phase : (or/c exact-integer? #f) = source-phase
  nominal-symbol : symbol? = source-symbol
  nominal-require-phase : (or/c exact-integer? #f) = 0
  inspector : (or/c inspector? #f) = #f
A syntax binding set supports explicit construction of binding information for a syntax object. Start by creating an empty binding set with syntax-binding-set, add bindings with syntax-binding-set-extend, and create a syntax object that has the bindings as its lexical information using syntax-binding-set->syntax.

The first three arguments to syntax-binding-set-extend establish a binding of symbol at phase to an identifier that is defined in the module referenced by mpi. Supply source-symbol to make the binding of symbol refer to a different provided variable from mpi, and so on; the optional arguments correspond to the results of identifier-binding.

Added in version of package base.


(datum-intern-literal v)  any/c

  v : any/c
Converts some values to be consistent with an interned result produced by the default reader in read-syntax mode.

If v is a number, character, string, byte string, or regular expression, then the result is a value that is equal? to v and eq? to a potential result of the default reader. (Note that mutable strings and byte strings are interned as immutable strings and byte strings.)

If v is an uninterned or an unreadable symbol, the result is still v, since an interned symbol would not be equal? to v.

The conversion process does not traverse compound values. For example, if v is a pair containing strings, then the strings within v are not interned.

If v1 and v2 are equal? but not eq?, then it is possible that (datum-intern-literal v1) will return v1 and—sometime after v1 becomes unreachable as determined by the garbage collector (see Garbage Collection)—(datum-intern-literal v2) can still return v2. In other words, datum-intern-literal may adopt a given value as an interned representative, but if a former representative becomes otherwise unreachable, then datum-intern-literal may adopt a new representative.


(syntax-shift-phase-level stx shift)  syntax?

  stx : syntax?
  shift : (or/c exact-integer? #f)
Returns a syntax object that is like stx, but with all of its top-level and module bindings shifted by shift phase levels. If shift is #f, then only bindings at phase level 0 are shifted to the label phase level. If shift is 0, then the result is stx.


(generate-temporaries stx-pair)  (listof identifier?)

  stx-pair : (or syntax? list?)
Returns a list of identifiers that are distinct from all other identifiers. The list contains as many identifiers as stx-pair contains elements. The stx-pair argument must be a syntax pair that can be flattened into a list. The elements of stx-pair can be anything, but string, symbol, keyword (possibly wrapped as syntax), and identifier elements will be embedded in the corresponding generated name, which is useful for debugging purposes.

The generated identifiers are built with interned symbols (not gensyms); see also Printing Compiled Code.

> (generate-temporaries '(a b c d))

'(#<syntax a1> #<syntax b2> #<syntax c3> #<syntax d4>)

> (generate-temporaries #'(1 2 3 4))

'(#<syntax temp5> #<syntax temp6> #<syntax temp7> #<syntax temp8>)

> (define-syntax (set!-values stx)
    (syntax-case stx ()
      [(_ (id ...) expr)
       (with-syntax ([(temp ...) (generate-temporaries #'(id ...))])
         #'(let-values ([(temp ...) expr])
             (set! id temp) ... (void)))]))


(identifier-prune-lexical-context id-stx    
  [syms])  identifier?
  id-stx : identifier?
  syms : (listof symbol?) = (list (syntax-e id-stx))
Returns an identifier with the same binding as id-stx, but without possibly lexical information from id-stx that does not apply to the symbols in syms, where even further extension of the lexical information drops information for other symbols. In particular, transferring the lexical context via datum->syntax from the result of this function to a symbol other than one in syms may produce an identifier with no binding.

Currently, the result is always id-stx exactly. Pruning was intended primarily as a kind of optimization in a previous version of Racket, but it is less useful and difficult to implement efficiently in the current macro expander.

See also quote-syntax/prune.

Changed in version 6.5 of package base: Always return id-stx.


(identifier-prune-to-source-module id-stx)  identifier?

  id-stx : identifier?
Returns an identifier with its lexical context minimized to that needed for syntax-source-module. The minimized lexical context does not include any bindings.


(syntax-recertify new-stx    
  key)  syntax?
  new-stx : syntax?
  old-stx : syntax?
  inspector : inspector?
  key : any/c
For backward compatibility only; returns new-stx.


(syntax-debug-info stx [phase all-bindings?])  hash?

  stx : syntax?
  phase : (or/c exact-integer? #f) = (syntax-local-phase-level)
  all-bindings? : any/c = #f
Produces a hash table that describes the lexical information of stx (not counting components when (syntax-e stx) would return a compound value). The result can include—but is not limited to—the following keys:

Added in version 6.3 of package base.