DSSL:   Data Structures Student Language
1 Pre-defined Variables
empty
true
false
2 Syntax for DSSL
2.1 Definition Forms
define
2.2 Expression Forms
begin
begin0
set!
lambda
λ
case
match
when
unless
delay
local
letrec
let*
let
time
shared
recur
while
until
define-struct
cond
else
if
and
or
check-expect
check-random
check-satisfied
check-within
check-error
check-member-of
check-range
3 Pre-Defined Functions
4 Numbers:   Integers, Rationals, Reals, Complex, Exacts, Inexacts
-
<
<=
=
>
>=
abs
acos
add1
angle
asin
atan
ceiling
complex?
conjugate
cos
cosh
current-seconds
denominator
e
even?
exact->inexact
exact?
exp
expt
floor
gcd
imag-part
inexact->exact
inexact?
integer->char
integer-sqrt
integer?
lcm
log
magnitude
make-polar
make-rectangular
max
min
modulo
negative?
number->string
number?
numerator
odd?
pi
positive?
quotient
random
rational?
real-part
real?
remainder
round
sgn
sin
sinh
sqr
sqrt
sub1
tan
zero?
5 Booleans
boolean->string
boolean=?
boolean?
false?
not
6 Symbols
symbol->string
symbol=?
symbol?
7 Lists
append
assoc
assq
caaar
caadr
caar
cadar
cadddr
caddr
cadr
car
cdaar
cdadr
cdar
cddar
cdddr
cddr
cdr
cons
cons?
eighth
empty?
fifth
first
fourth
length
list
list*
list-ref
list?
make-list
member
member?
memq
memq?
memv
null
null?
range
remove
remove-all
rest
reverse
second
seventh
sixth
third
8 Posns
make-posn
posn-x
posn-y
posn?
set-posn-x!
set-posn-y!
9 Characters
char->integer
char-alphabetic?
char-ci<=?
char-ci<?
char-ci=?
char-ci>=?
char-ci>?
char-downcase
char-lower-case?
char-numeric?
char-upcase
char-upper-case?
char-whitespace?
char<=?
char<?
char=?
char>=?
char>?
char?
10 Strings
explode
format
implode
int->string
list->string
make-string
replicate
string
string->int
string->list
string->number
string->symbol
string-alphabetic?
string-append
string-ci<=?
string-ci<?
string-ci=?
string-ci>=?
string-ci>?
string-contains-ci?
string-contains?
string-copy
string-downcase
string-ith
string-length
string-lower-case?
string-numeric?
string-ref
string-upcase
string-upper-case?
string-whitespace?
string<=?
string<?
string=?
string>=?
string>?
string?
substring
11 Images
image=?
image?
12 Misc
=~
current-milliseconds
eof
eof-object?
eq?
equal?
equal~?
eqv?
error
exit
force
gensym
identity
promise?
sleep
struct?
void
void?
13 Numbers (relaxed conditions)
*
+
/
14 Posn
posn
15 Higher-Order Functions
andmap
apply
argmax
argmin
build-list
build-string
compose
filter
foldl
foldr
for-each
map
memf
ormap
procedure?
quicksort
sort
16 Reading and Printing
display
newline
pretty-print
print
printf
read
with-input-from-file
with-input-from-string
with-output-to-file
with-output-to-string
write
17 Vectors
build-vector
list->vector
make-vector
vector
vector->list
vector-length
vector-ref
vector-set!
vector?
18 Boxes
box
box?
set-box!
unbox
19 Hash Tables
hash-copy
hash-count
hash-eq?
hash-equal?
hash-eqv?
hash-for-each
hash-has-key?
hash-map
hash-ref
hash-ref!
hash-remove
hash-remove!
hash-set
hash-set!
hash-update
hash-update!
hash?
make-hash
make-hasheq
make-hasheqv
make-immutable-hash
make-immutable-hasheq
make-immutable-hasheqv
6.12

DSSL: Data Structures Student Language

Jesse A. Tov <[email protected]>

 #lang dssl package: dssl

The DSSL language is substantially similar to Advanced Student Language. In particular, it provides the same functions and values (except for hash tables).

In addition to the special forms documented below, DSSL includes for (and friends).

  program = def-or-expr ...
     
  def-or-expr = definition
  | expr
  | test-case
     
  definition = (define (name variable ...) expr)
  | (define name expr)
  | (define-struct name (name ...))
     
  expr = (expr expr ...)
  | (begin expr expr ...)
  | (begin0 expr expr ...)
  | (lambda (variable ...) expr ...)
  | (λ (variable ...) expr ...)
  | (local [definition ...] expr ...)
  | (let ([name expr] ...) expr ...)
  | (let* ([name expr] ...) expr ...)
  | (recur name ([name expr] ...) expr ...)
  | (letrec ([name expr] ...) expr ...)
  | (shared ([name expr] ...) expr ...)
  | (set! name expr)
  | (cond [expr expr ...] ... [expr expr ...])
  | (cond [expr expr ...] ... [else expr ...])
  | 
(case expr [(choice choice ...) expr ...] ...
           [(choice choice ...) expr ...])
  | 
(case expr [(choice choice ...) expr ...] ...
           [else expr ...])
  | (match expr [pattern expr ...] ...)
  | (if expr expr expr)
  | (when expr expr ...)
  | (unless expr expr ...)
  | (and expr expr expr ...)
  | (or expr expr expr ...)
  | (while expr expr ...)
  | (until expr expr ...)
  | for-loop
  | (time expr ...)
  | (delay expr)
  | name
  | quoted
  | quasiquoted
  | ()
  | number
  | boolean
  | string
  | character
     
  choice = name
  | number
     
  pattern = _
  | name
  | number
  | true
  | false
  | string
  | character
  | quoted
  | quasiquoted-pattern
  | (cons pattern pattern)
  | (list pattern ...)
  | (list* pattern ...)
  | (struct id (pattern ...))
  | (vector pattern ...)
  | (box pattern)
     
  quasiquoted-pattern = name
  | number
  | string
  | character
  | (quasiquoted-pattern ...)
  | quasiquoted-pattern
  | quasiquoted-pattern
  | ,pattern
  | ,@pattern
     
  test-case = (check-expect expr expr)
  | (check-error expr expr ...)
  | (check-within expr expr expr)
  | (check-random expr expr)
  | (check-satisfied expr expr)
  | (check-member-of expr expr ...)
  | (check-range expr expr expr)

A name or a variable is a sequence of characters not including a space or one of the following:
   " , ' ` ( ) [ ] { } | ; #
A number is a number such as 123, 3/2, or 5.5.
A boolean is one of: #true or #false. Alternative spellings for the #true constant are #t, true, and #T. Similarly, #f, false, or #F are also recognized as #false.
A symbol is a quote character followed by a name. A symbol is a value, just like 42, '(), or #false.
A string is a sequence of characters enclosed by a pair of ". Unlike symbols, strings may be split into characters and manipulated by a variety of functions. For example, "abcdef", "This is a string", and "This is a string with \" inside" are all strings.
A character begins with #\ and has the name of the character. For example, #\a, #\b, and #\space are characters.
In function calls, the function appearing immediately after the open parenthesis can be any functions defined with define or define-struct, or any one of the pre-defined functions.

1 Pre-defined Variables

value

empty : empty?

The empty list.

value

true : boolean?

The #true value.

value

false : boolean?

The #false value.

2 Syntax for DSSL

2.1 Definition Forms

syntax

(define (name variable ...) expression ...)

Defines a function named name. The expressions are the body of the function. When the function is called, the values of the arguments are inserted into the body in place of the variables. The function returns the value of the last expression in the sequence.

The function name’s cannot be the same as that of another function or variable.

syntax

(define name expression)

Defines a variable called name with the the value of expression. The variable’s name cannot be the same as that of another function or variable, and name itself must not appear in expression.

2.2 Expression Forms

syntax

(expression expression ...)

Calls the function that results from evaluating the first expression. The value of the call is the value of function’s body when every instance of name’s variables are replaced by the values of the corresponding expressions.

The function being called must come from either a definition appearing before the function call, or from a lambda expression. The number of argument expressions must be the same as the number of arguments expected by the function.

syntax

(begin expression expression ...)

Evaluates the expressions in order from left to right. The value of the begin expression is the value of the last expression.

syntax

(begin0 expression expression ...)

Evaluates the expressions in order from left to right. The value of the begin expression is the value of the first expression.

syntax

(set! variable expression)

Evaluates expression, and then mutates the variable to have expression’s value. The variable must be defined by define, letrec, let*, or let.

syntax

(lambda (variable ...) expression ...)

Creates a function that takes as many arguments as given variables, and whose body is a sequence of expressions. The result of the function is the result of the last expression.

syntax

(λ (variable ...) expression ...)

The Greek letter λ is a synonym for lambda.

syntax

(case expression [(choice ...) expression ...]
                 ...
                 [(choice ...) expression ...])
A case form contains one or more clauses. Each clause contains a choices (in parentheses)—either numbers or names—and an answer expression. The initial expression is evaluated, and its value is compared to the choices in each clause, where the lines are considered in order. The first line that contains a matching choice provides an answer expression whose value is the result of the whole case expression. Numbers match with the numbers in the choices, and symbols match with the names. If none of the lines contains a matching choice, it is an error.

syntax

(case expression [(choice ...) expression ...]
                 ...
                 [else expression ...])
This form of case is similar to the prior one, except that the final else clause is taken if no clause contains a choice matching the value of the initial expression.

syntax

(match expression [pattern expression ...] ...)

A match form contains one or more clauses that are surrounded by square brackets. Each clause contains a pattern—a description of a value—and an answer expression. The initial expression is evaluated, and its value is matched against the pattern in each clause, where the clauses are considered in order. The first clause that contains a matching pattern provides an answer expression whose value is the result of the whole match expression. This expression may reference identifiers defined in the matching pattern. If none of the clauses contains a matching pattern, it is an error.

syntax

(when test-expression body-expression ...)

If test-expression evaluates to true, the body-expressions are evaluated in order, an the result is the result of the last body-expression. Otherwise the result is (void) and the body-expression is not evaluated. If the result of evaluating the test-expression is neither true nor false, it is an error.

syntax

(unless test-expression body-expression ...)

Like when, but the body-expressions are evaluated when the test-expression produces false instead of true.

syntax

(delay expression)

Produces a “promise” to evaluate expression. The expression is not evaluated until the promise is forced with force; when the promise is forced, the result is recorded, so that any further force of the promise immediately produces the remembered value.

syntax

(local [definition ...] expression)

Groups related definitions for use in expression. Each definition can be either a define or a define-struct.

When evaluating local, each definition is evaluated in order, and finally the body expression is evaluated. Only the expressions within the local (including the right-hand-sides of the definitions and the expression) may refer to the names defined by the definitions. If a name defined in the local is the same as a top-level binding, the inner one “shadows” the outer one. That is, inside the local, any references to that name refer to the inner one.

syntax

(letrec ([name expr-for-let] ...) expression)

Like local, but with a simpler syntax. Each name defines a variable (or a function) with the value of the corresponding expr-for-let. If expr-for-let is a lambda, letrec defines a function, otherwise it defines a variable.

syntax

(let* ([name expr-for-let] ...) expression)

Like letrec, but each name can only be used in expression, and in expr-for-lets occuring after that name.

syntax

(let ([name expr-for-let] ...) expression)

Like letrec, but the defined names can be used only in the last expression, not the expr-for-lets next to the names.

syntax

(time expression)

Measures the time taken to evaluate expression. After evaluating expression, time prints out the time taken by the evaluation (including real time, time taken by the CPU, and the time spent collecting free memory). The value of time is the same as that of expression.

syntax

(shared ([name expr-for-shared] ...) expression)

Like letrec, but when an expression next to an id is a cons, list, vector, quasiquoted expression, or make-struct-name from a define-struct, the expression can refer directly to any name, not just names defined earlier. Thus, shared can be used to create cyclic data structures.

syntax

(recur loop-name ([name expr-for-recur] ...) expression)

A short-hand syntax for recursive loops. The first name corresponds to the name of the recursive function. The names in the parenthesis are the function’s arguments, and each corresponding expression is a value supplied for that argument in an initial starting call of the function. The last expression is the body of the function.

More precisely, the following recur

(recur func-name ([arg-name arg-expression] ...)
  body-expression)

is equivalent to:

(local [(define (func-name arg-name ...) body-expression)]
  (func-name arg-expression ...))

syntax

(while test-expression body-expression ...)

If test-expression evaluates to true, the body-expressions are evaluated in order, and then the loop starts over by testing test-expression again. When test-expression is false, the loop terminates and returns (void). If the result of evaluating the test-expression is neither true nor false, it is an error.

syntax

(until test-expression body-expression ...)

Like while, except the loop continutes so long as test-expression evalutes to false.

syntax

(define-struct structure-name (field-name ...))

Defines a new structure called structure-name. The structure’s fields are named by the field-names. After the define-struct, the following new functions are available:

The name of the new functions introduced by define-struct must not be the same as that of other functions or variables, otherwise define-struct reports an error.

In DSSL, define-struct introduces one additional function:
  • set-structure-name-field-name! : takes an instance of the structure and a value, and mutates the instance’s field to the given value.

syntax

(cond [question-expression answer-expression ...] ...)

(cond [question-expression answer-expression ...]
      ...
      [else answer-expression ...])
Chooses a clause based on some condition. cond finds the first question-expression that evaluates to #true, then evaluates the corresponding answer-expression.

If none of the question-expressions evaluates to #true, cond’s value is the answer-expression of the else clause. If there is no else, cond reports an error. If the result of a question-expression is neither #true nor #false, cond also reports an error.

else cannot be used outside of cond.

syntax

(if test-expression then-expression else-expression)

When the value of the test-expression is #true, if evaluates the then-expression. When the test is #false, if evaluates the else-expression.

If the test-expression is neither #true nor #false, if reports an error.

syntax

(and expression expression expression ...)

Evaluates to #true if all the expressions are #true. If any expression is #false, the and expression evaluates to #false (and the expressions to the right of that expression are not evaluated.)

If any of the expressions evaluate to a value other than #true or #false, and reports an error.

syntax

(or expression expression expression ...)

Evaluates to #true as soon as one of the expressions is #true (and the expressions to the right of that expression are not evaluated.) If all of the expressions are #false, the or expression evaluates to #false.

If any of the expressions evaluate to a value other than #true or #false, or reports an error.

syntax

(check-expect expression expected-expression)

Checks that the first expression evaluates to the same value as the expected-expression.

(check-expect (fahrenheit->celsius 212) 100)
(check-expect (fahrenheit->celsius -40) -40)
 
(define (fahrenheit->celsius f)
  (* 5/9 (- f 32)))
A check-expect expression must be placed at the top-level of a student program. Also it may show up anywhere in the program, including ahead of the tested function definition. By placing check-expects there, a programmer conveys to a future reader the intention behind the program with working examples, thus making it often superfluous to read the function definition proper.

It is an error for expr or expected-expr to produce an inexact number or a function value. As for inexact numbers, it is morally wrong to compare them for plain equality. Instead one tests whether they are both within a small interval; see check-within. As for functions (see Intermediate and up), it is provably impossible to compare functions.

syntax

(check-random expression expected-expression)

Checks that the first expression evaluates to the same value as the expected-expression.

The form supplies the same random-number generator to both parts. If both parts request random numbers from the same interval in the same order, they receive the same random numbers.

Here is a simple example of where check-random is useful:
(define WIDTH 100)
(define HEIGHT (* 2 WIDTH))
 
(define-struct player (name x y))
; A Player is (make-player String Nat Nat)
 
; String -> Player
 
(check-random (create-randomly-placed-player "David Van Horn")
              (make-player "David Van Horn" (random WIDTH) (random HEIGHT)))
 
(define (create-randomly-placed-player name)
  (make-player name (random WIDTH) (random HEIGHT)))
Note how random is called on the same numbers in the same order in both parts of check-random. If the two parts call random for different intervals, they are likely to fail:
; String -> Player
 
(check-random (create-randomly-placed-player "David Van Horn")
              (make-player "David Van Horn" (random WIDTH) (random HEIGHT)))
 
(define (create-randomly-placed-player name)
  (local ((define h (random HEIGHT))
          (define w (random WIDTH)))
    (make-player name w h)))

It is an error for expr or expected-expr to produce a function value or an inexact number; see note on check-expect for details.

syntax

(check-satisfied expression predicate)

Checks that the first expression satisfies the named predicate (function of one argument). Recall that “satisfies” means “the function produces a value other than false.”

Here are simple examples for check-satisfied:
> (check-satisfied 1 odd?)

The only test passed!

> (check-satisfied 1 even?)

Ran 1 check.

0 checks passed.

Actual value 1 does not satisfy "even?".

 At line 3 column 0

In general check-satisfied empowers program designers to use defined functions to formulate test suites:
; [cons Number [List-of Number]] -> Boolean
; a function for testing htdp-sort
 
(check-expect (sorted? (list 1 2 3)) #true)
(check-expect (sorted? (list 2 1 3)) #false)
 
(define (sorted? l)
  (cond
    [(empty? (rest l)) #true]
    [else (and (<= (first l) (second l)) (sorted? (rest l)))]))
 
; [List-of Number] -> [List-of Number]
; create a sorted version of the given list of numbers
 
(check-satisfied (htdp-sort (list 1 2 0 3)) sorted?)
 
(define (htdp-sort l)
  (cond
    [(empty? l) l]
    [else (insert (first l) (htdp-sort (rest l)))]))
 
; Number [List-of Number] -> [List-of Number]
; insert x into l at proper place
; assume l is arranged in ascending order
; the result is sorted in the same way
(define (insert x l)
  (cond
    [(empty? l) (list x)]
    [else (if (<= x (first l)) (cons x l) (cons (first l) (insert x (rest l))))]))

And yes, the results of htdp-sort satisfy the sorted? predicate:
> (check-satisfied (htdp-sort (list 1 2 0 3)) sorted?)

The only test passed!

syntax

(check-within expression expected-expression delta)

Checks whether the value of the expression expression is structurally equal to the value produced by the expected-expression expression; every number in the first expression must be within delta of the corresponding number in the second expression.

(define-struct roots (x sqrt))
; RT is [List-of (make-roots Number Number)]
 
(define (roots-table xs)
  (map (lambda (a) (make-roots a (sqrt a))) xs))

Due to the presence of inexact numbers in nested data, check-within is the correct choice for testing, and the test succeeds if delta is reasonably large:

Example:
> (check-within (roots-table (list 1.0 2.0 3.0))
                (list
                  (make-roots 1.0 1.0)
                  (make-roots 2  1.414)
                  (make-roots 3  1.713))
                0.1)

The only test passed!

In contrast, when delta is small, the test fails:

Example:
> (check-within (roots-table (list 2.0))
                (list
                  (make-roots 2  1.414))
                1e-05)

Ran 1 check.

0 checks passed.

Actual value '((make-roots 2.0 1.4142135623730951)) is not within 1e-05 of expected value '((make-roots 2 1.414)).

 At line 5 column 0

It is an error for expressions or expected-expression to produce a function value; see note on check-expect for details.

If delta is not a number, check-within reports an error.

syntax

(check-error expression expected-error-message)

(check-error expression)
Checks that the expression reports an error, where the error messages matches the value of expected-error-message, if it is present.

Here is a typical beginner example that calls for a use of check-error:
(define sample-table
  '(("matthias" 10)
    ("matthew"  20)
    ("robby"    -1)
    ("shriram"  18)))
 
; [List-of [list String Number]] String -> Number
; determine the number associated with s in table
 
(define (lookup table s)
  (cond
    [(empty? table) (error (string-append s " not found"))]
    [else (if (string=? (first (first table)) s)
              (second (first table))
              (lookup (rest table)))]))

Consider the following two examples in this context:

Example:
> (check-expect (lookup sample-table "matthew") 20)

The only test passed!

Example:
> (check-error (lookup sample-table "kathi") "kathi not found")

The only test passed!

syntax

(check-member-of expression expression expression ...)

Checks that the value of the first expression is that of one of the following expressions.

; [List-of X] -> X
; pick a random element from the given list l
(define (pick-one l)
  (list-ref l (random (length l))))

Example:
> (check-member-of (pick-one '("a" "b" "c")) "a" "b" "c")

The only test passed!

It is an error for any of expressions to produce a function value; see note on check-expect for details.

syntax

(check-range expression low-expression high-expression)

Checks that the value of the first expression is a number in between the value of the low-expression and the high-expression, inclusive.

A check-range form is best used to delimit the possible results of functions that compute inexact numbers:
; [Real -> Real] Real -> Real
; what is the slope of f at x?
(define (differentiate f x)
  (local ((define epsilon 0.001)
          (define left (- x epsilon))
          (define right (+ x epsilon))
          (define slope
            (/ (- (f right) (f left))
               2 epsilon)))
    slope))
 
(check-range (differentiate sin 0) 0.99 1.0)

It is an error for expression, low-expression, or high-expression to produce a function value or an inexact number; see note on check-expect for details.

3 Pre-Defined Functions

The remaining subsections list those functions that are built into the programming language. All other functions must be defined in the program.

4 Numbers: Integers, Rationals, Reals, Complex, Exacts, Inexacts

procedure

(- x y ...)  number

  x : number
  y : number
Subtracts the second (and following) number(s) from the first ; negates the number if there is only one argument.
> (- 5)

-5

> (- 5 3)

2

> (- 5 3 1)

1

procedure

(< x y z ...)  boolean?

  x : real
  y : real
  z : real
Compares (real) numbers for less-than.
> (< 42 2/5)

#false

procedure

(<= x y z ...)  boolean?

  x : real
  y : real
  z : real
Compares (real) numbers for less-than or equality.
> (<= 42 2/5)

#false

procedure

(= x y z ...)  boolean?

  x : number
  y : number
  z : number
Compares numbers for equality.
> (= 42 2/5)

#false

procedure

(> x y z ...)  boolean?

  x : real
  y : real
  z : real
Compares (real) numbers for greater-than.
> (> 42 2/5)

#true

procedure

(>= x y z ...)  boolean?

  x : real
  y : real
  z : real
Compares (real) numbers for greater-than or equality.
> (>= 42 42)

#true

procedure

(abs x)  real

  x : real
Determines the absolute value of a real number.
> (abs -12)

12

procedure

(acos x)  number

  x : number
Computes the arccosine (inverse of cos) of a number.
> (acos 0)

#i1.5707963267948966

procedure

(add1 x)  number

  x : number
Increments the given number.
> (add1 2)

3

procedure

(angle x)  real

  x : number
Extracts the angle from a complex number.
> (angle (make-polar 3 4))

#i-2.2831853071795867

procedure

(asin x)  number

  x : number
Computes the arcsine (inverse of sin) of a number.
> (asin 0)

0

procedure

(atan x)  number

  x : number
Computes the arctangent of the given number:
> (atan 0)

0

> (atan 0.5)

#i0.4636476090008061

Also comes in a two-argument version where (atan x y) computes (atan (/ x y)) but the signs of x and y determine the quadrant of the result and the result tends to be more accurate than that of the 1-argument version in borderline cases:
> (atan 3 4)

#i0.6435011087932844

> (atan -2 -1)

#i-2.0344439357957027

procedure

(ceiling x)  integer

  x : real
Determines the closest integer (exact or inexact) above a real number. See round.
> (ceiling 12.3)

#i13.0

procedure

(complex? x)  boolean?

  x : any/c
Determines whether some value is complex.
> (complex? 1-2i)

#true

procedure

(conjugate x)  number

  x : number
Flips the sign of the imaginary part of a complex number.
> (conjugate 3+4i)

3-4i

> (conjugate -2-5i)

-2+5i

> (conjugate (make-polar 3 4))

#i-1.960930862590836+2.2704074859237844i

procedure

(cos x)  number

  x : number
Computes the cosine of a number (radians).
> (cos pi)

#i-1.0

procedure

(cosh x)  number

  x : number
Computes the hyperbolic cosine of a number.
> (cosh 10)

#i11013.232920103324

procedure

(current-seconds)  integer

Determines the current time in seconds elapsed (since a platform-specific starting date).
> (current-seconds)

1517109841

procedure

(denominator x)  integer

  x : rational?
Computes the denominator of a rational.
> (denominator 2/3)

3

value

e : real

Euler’s number.
> e

#i2.718281828459045

procedure

(even? x)  boolean?

  x : integer
Determines if some integer (exact or inexact) is even or not.
> (even? 2)

#true

procedure

(exact->inexact x)  number

  x : number
Converts an exact number to an inexact one.
> (exact->inexact 12)

#i12.0

procedure

(exact? x)  boolean?

  x : number
Determines whether some number is exact.
> (exact? (sqrt 2))

#false

procedure

(exp x)  number

  x : number
Determines e raised to a number.
> (exp -2)

#i0.1353352832366127

procedure

(expt x y)  number

  x : number
  y : number
Computes the power of the first to the second number.
> (expt 16 1/2)

4

> (expt 3 -4)

1/81

procedure

(floor x)  integer

  x : real
Determines the closest integer (exact or inexact) below a real number. See round.
> (floor 12.3)

#i12.0

procedure

(gcd x y ...)  integer

  x : integer
  y : integer
Determines the greatest common divisor of two integers (exact or inexact).
> (gcd 6 12 8)

2

procedure

(imag-part x)  real

  x : number
Extracts the imaginary part from a complex number.
> (imag-part 3+4i)

4

procedure

(inexact->exact x)  number

  x : number
Approximates an inexact number by an exact one.
> (inexact->exact 12.0)

12

procedure

(inexact? x)  boolean?

  x : number
Determines whether some number is inexact.
> (inexact? 1-2i)

#false

procedure

(integer->char x)  char

  x : exact-integer?
Looks up the character that corresponds to the given exact integer in the ASCII table (if any).
> (integer->char 42)

#\*

procedure

(integer-sqrt x)  complex

  x : integer
Computes the integer or imaginary-integer square root of an integer.
> (integer-sqrt 11)

3

> (integer-sqrt -11)

0+3i

procedure

(integer? x)  boolean?

  x : any/c
Determines whether some value is an integer (exact or inexact).
> (integer? (sqrt 2))

#false

procedure

(lcm x y ...)  integer

  x : integer
  y : integer
Determines the least common multiple of two integers (exact or inexact).
> (lcm 6 12 8)

24

procedure

(log x)  number

  x : number
Determines the base-e logarithm of a number.
> (log 12)

#i2.4849066497880004

procedure

(magnitude x)  real

  x : number
Determines the magnitude of a complex number.
> (magnitude (make-polar 3 4))

#i3.0

procedure

(make-polar x y)  number

  x : real
  y : real
Creates a complex from a magnitude and angle.
> (make-polar 3 4)

#i-1.960930862590836-2.2704074859237844i

procedure

(make-rectangular x y)  number

  x : real
  y : real
Creates a complex from a real and an imaginary part.
> (make-rectangular 3 4)

3+4i

procedure

(max x y ...)  real

  x : real
  y : real
Determines the largest number—aka, the maximum.
> (max 3 2 8 7 2 9 0)

9

procedure

(min x y ...)  real

  x : real
  y : real
Determines the smallest number—aka, the minimum.
> (min 3 2 8 7 2 9 0)

0

procedure

(modulo x y)  integer

  x : integer
  y : integer
Finds the remainder of the division of the first number by the second:
> (modulo 9 2)

1

> (modulo 3 -4)

-1

procedure

(negative? x)  boolean?

  x : real
Determines if some real number is strictly smaller than zero.
> (negative? -2)

#true

procedure

(number->string x)  string

  x : number
Converts a number to a string.
> (number->string 42)

"42"

procedure

(number? n)  boolean?

  n : any/c
Determines whether some value is a number:
> (number? "hello world")

#false

> (number? 42)

#true

procedure

(numerator x)  integer

  x : rational?
Computes the numerator of a rational.
> (numerator 2/3)

2

procedure

(odd? x)  boolean?

  x : integer
Determines if some integer (exact or inexact) is odd or not.
> (odd? 2)

#false

value

pi : real

The ratio of a circle’s circumference to its diameter.
> pi

#i3.141592653589793

procedure

(positive? x)  boolean?

  x : real
Determines if some real number is strictly larger than zero.
> (positive? -2)

#false

procedure

(quotient x y)  integer

  x : integer
  y : integer
Divides the second integer—also called divisor—into the first—known as dividend—to obtain the quotient.
> (quotient 9 2)

4

> (quotient 3 4)

0

procedure

(random x)  natural

  x : natural
Generates a random number. If given one argument random returns a natural number less than the given natural. In ASL, if given no arguments, random generates a random inexact number between 0.0 and 1.0 exclusive.
> (random)

#i0.43292136025792993

> (random)

#i0.7445307301502656

> (random 42)

35

> (random 42)

29

procedure

(rational? x)  boolean?

  x : any/c
Determines whether some value is a rational number.
> (rational? 1)

#true

> (rational? -2.349)

#true

> (rational? #i1.23456789)

#true

> (rational? (sqrt -1))

#false

> (rational? pi)

#true

> (rational? e)

#true

> (rational? 1-2i)

#false

As the interactions show, the teaching languages considers many more numbers as rationals than expected. In particular, pi is a rational number because it is only a finite approximation to the mathematical π. Think of rational? as a suggestion to think of these numbers as fractions.

procedure

(real-part x)  real

  x : number
Extracts the real part from a complex number.
> (real-part 3+4i)

3

procedure

(real? x)  boolean?

  x : any/c
Determines whether some value is a real number.
> (real? 1-2i)

#false

procedure

(remainder x y)  integer

  x : integer
  y : integer
Determines the remainder of dividing the first by the second integer (exact or inexact).
> (remainder 9 2)

1

> (remainder 3 4)

3

procedure

(round x)  integer

  x : real
Rounds a real number to an integer (rounds to even to break ties). See floor and ceiling.
> (round 12.3)

#i12.0

procedure

(sgn x)  (union 1 #i1.0 0 #i0.0 -1 #i-1.0)

  x : real
Determines the sign of a real number.
> (sgn -12)

-1

procedure

(sin x)  number

  x : number
Computes the sine of a number (radians).
> (sin pi)

#i1.2246467991473532e-16

procedure

(sinh x)  number

  x : number
Computes the hyperbolic sine of a number.
> (sinh 10)

#i11013.232874703393

procedure

(sqr x)  number

  x : number
Computes the square of a number.
> (sqr 8)

64

procedure

(sqrt x)  number

  x : number
Computes the square root of a number.
> (sqrt 9)

3

> (sqrt 2)

#i1.4142135623730951

procedure

(sub1 x)  number

  x : number
Decrements the given number.
> (sub1 2)

1

procedure

(tan x)  number

  x : number
Computes the tangent of a number (radians).
> (tan pi)

#i-1.2246467991473532e-16

procedure

(zero? x)  boolean?

  x : number
Determines if some number is zero or not.
> (zero? 2)

#false

5 Booleans

procedure

(boolean->string x)  string

  x : boolean?
Produces a string for the given boolean
> (boolean->string #false)

"#false"

> (boolean->string #true)

"#true"

procedure

(boolean=? x y)  boolean?

  x : boolean?
  y : boolean?
Determines whether two booleans are equal.
> (boolean=? #true #false)

#false

procedure

(boolean? x)  boolean?

  x : any/c
Determines whether some value is a boolean.
> (boolean? 42)

#false

> (boolean? #false)

#true

procedure

(false? x)  boolean?

  x : any/c
Determines whether a value is false.
> (false? #false)

#true

procedure

(not x)  boolean?

  x : boolean?
Negates a boolean value.
> (not #false)

#true

6 Symbols

procedure

(symbol->string x)  string

  x : symbol
Converts a symbol to a string.
> (symbol->string 'c)

"c"

procedure

(symbol=? x y)  boolean?

  x : symbol
  y : symbol
Determines whether two symbols are equal.
> (symbol=? 'a 'b)

#false

procedure

(symbol? x)  boolean?

  x : any/c
Determines whether some value is a symbol.
> (symbol? 'a)

#true

7 Lists

procedure

(append l ...)  (listof any)

  l : (listof any)
Creates a single list from several. In ASL, list* also deals with cyclic lists.

procedure

(assoc x l)  (union (listof any) #false)

  x : any
  l : (listof any)
Produces the first pair on l whose first is equal? to x; otherwise it produces #false.
> (assoc "hello" '(("world" 2) ("hello" 3) ("good" 0)))

(list "hello" 3)

procedure

(assq x l)  (union #false cons?)

  x : any/c
  l : list?
Determines whether some item is the first item of a pair in a list of pairs. (It compares the items with eq?.)
> a

(list (list 'a 22) (list 'b 8) (list 'c 70))

> (assq 'b a)

(list 'b 8)

procedure

(caaar x)  any/c

  x : list?
LISP-style selector: (car (car (car (car x)))).
> w

(list (list (list (list "bye") 3) #true) 42)

> (caaar w)

(list "bye")

procedure

(caadr x)  any/c

  x : list?
LISP-style selector: (car (car (cdr x))).
> (caadr (cons 1 (cons (cons 'a '()) (cons (cons 'd '()) '()))))

'a

procedure

(caar x)  any/c

  x : list?
LISP-style selector: (car (car x)).
> y

(list (list (list 1 2 3) #false "world"))

> (caar y)

(list 1 2 3)

procedure

(cadar x)  any/c

  x : list?
LISP-style selector: (car (cdr (car x))).
> w

(list (list (list (list "bye") 3) #true) 42)

> (cadar w)

#true

procedure

(cadddr x)  any/c

  x : list?
LISP-style selector: (car (cdr (cdr (cdr x)))).
> v

(list 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 'A)

> (cadddr v)

4

procedure

(caddr x)  any/c

  x : list?
LISP-style selector: (car (cdr (cdr x))).
> x

(list 2 "hello" #true)

> (caddr x)

#true

procedure

(cadr x)  any/c

  x : list?
LISP-style selector: (car (cdr x)).
> x

(list 2 "hello" #true)

> (cadr x)

"hello"

procedure

(car x)  any/c

  x : cons?
Selects the first item of a non-empty list.
> x

(list 2 "hello" #true)

> (car x)

2

procedure

(cdaar x)  any/c

  x : list?
LISP-style selector: (cdr (car (car x))).
> w

(list (list (list (list "bye") 3) #true) 42)

> (cdaar w)

(list 3)

procedure

(cdadr x)  any/c

  x : list?
LISP-style selector: (cdr (car (cdr x))).
> (cdadr (list 1 (list 2 "a") 3))

(list "a")

procedure

(cdar x)  list?

  x : list?
LISP-style selector: (cdr (car x)).
> y

(list (list (list 1 2 3) #false "world"))

> (cdar y)

(list #false "world")

procedure

(cddar x)  any/c

  x : list?
LISP-style selector: (cdr (cdr (car x)))
> w

(list (list (list (list "bye") 3) #true) 42)

> (cddar w)

'()

procedure

(cdddr x)  any/c

  x : list?
LISP-style selector: (cdr (cdr (cdr x))).
> v

(list 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 'A)

> (cdddr v)

(list 4 5 6 7 8 9 'A)

procedure

(cddr x)  list?

  x : list?
LISP-style selector: (cdr (cdr x)).
> x

(list 2 "hello" #true)

> (cddr x)

(list #true)

procedure

(cdr x)  any/c

  x : cons?
Selects the rest of a non-empty list.
> x

(list 2 "hello" #true)

> (cdr x)

(list "hello" #true)

procedure

(cons x l)  (listof X)

  x : X
  l : (listof X)
Constructs a list. In ASL, cons creates a mutable list.

procedure

(cons? x)  boolean?

  x : any/c
Determines whether some value is a constructed list.
> (cons? (cons 1 '()))

#true

> (cons? 42)

#false

procedure

(eighth x)  any/c

  x : list?
Selects the eighth item of a non-empty list.
> v

(list 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 'A)

> (eighth v)

8

procedure

(empty? x)  boolean?

  x : any/c
Determines whether some value is the empty list.
> (empty? '())

#true

> (empty? 42)

#false

procedure

(fifth x)  any/c

  x : list?
Selects the fifth item of a non-empty list.
> v

(list 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 'A)

> (fifth v)

5

procedure

(first x)  any/c

  x : cons?
Selects the first item of a non-empty list.
> x

(list 2 "hello" #true)

> (first x)

2

procedure

(fourth x)  any/c

  x : list?
Selects the fourth item of a non-empty list.
> v

(list 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 'A)

> (fourth v)

4

procedure

(length l)  natural-number?

  l : list?
Evaluates the number of items on a list.
> x

(list 2 "hello" #true)

> (length x)

3

procedure

(list x ...)  list?

  x : any/c
Constructs a list of its arguments.
> (list 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0)

(cons 1 (cons 2 (cons 3 (cons 4 (cons 5 (cons 6 (cons 7 (cons 8 (cons 9 (cons 0 '()))))))))))

procedure

(list* x ... l)  (listof any)

  x : any
  l : (listof any)
Constructs a list by adding multiple items to a list. In ASL, list* also deals with cyclic lists.

procedure

(list-ref x i)  any/c

  x : list?
  i : natural?
Extracts the indexed item from the list.
> v

(list 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 'A)

> (list-ref v 9)

'A

procedure

(list? x)  boolean?

  x : any
Checks whether the given value is a list.
> (list? 42)

#false

> (list? '())

#true

> (list? (cons 1 (cons 2 '())))

#true

procedure

(make-list i x)  list?

  i : natural-number
  x : any/c
Constructs a list of i copies of x.
> (make-list 3 "hello")

(cons "hello" (cons "hello" (cons "hello" '())))

procedure

(member x l)  boolean?

  x : any/c
  l : list?
Determines whether some value is on the list (comparing values with equal?).
> x

(list 2 "hello" #true)

> (member "hello" x)

#true

procedure

(member? x l)  boolean?

  x : any/c
  l : list?
Determines whether some value is on the list (comparing values with equal?).
> x

(list 2 "hello" #true)

> (member? "hello" x)

#true

procedure

(memq x l)  boolean?

  x : any/c
  l : list?
Determines whether some value x is on some list l, using eq? to compare x with items on l.
> x

(list 2 "hello" #true)

> (memq (list (list 1 2 3)) x)

#false

procedure

(memq? x l)  boolean?

  x : any/c
  l : list?
Determines whether some value x is on some list l, using eq? to compare x with items on l.
> x

(list 2 "hello" #true)

> (memq? (list (list 1 2 3)) x)

#false

procedure

(memv x l)  (or/c #false list)

  x : any/c
  l : list?
Determines whether some value is on the list if so, it produces the suffix of the list that starts with x if not, it produces false. (It compares values with the eqv? predicate.)
> x

(list 2 "hello" #true)

> (memv (list (list 1 2 3)) x)

#false

value

null : list

Another name for the empty list
> null

'()

procedure

(null? x)  boolean?

  x : any/c
Determines whether some value is the empty list.
> (null? '())

#true

> (null? 42)

#false

procedure

(range start end step)  list?

  start : number
  end : number
  step : number
Constructs a list of numbers by stepping from start to end.
> (range 0 10 2)

(cons 0 (cons 2 (cons 4 (cons 6 (cons 8 '())))))

procedure

(remove x l)  list?

  x : any/c
  l : list?
Constructs a list like the given one, with the first occurrence of the given item removed (comparing values with equal?).
> x

(list 2 "hello" #true)

> (remove "hello" x)

(list 2 #true)

> hello-2

(list 2 "hello" #true "hello")

> (remove "hello" hello-2)

(list 2 #true "hello")

procedure

(remove-all x l)  list?

  x : any/c
  l : list?
Constructs a list like the given one, with all occurrences of the given item removed (comparing values with equal?).
> x

(list 2 "hello" #true)

> (remove-all "hello" x)

(list 2 #true)

> hello-2

(list 2 "hello" #true "hello")

> (remove-all "hello" hello-2)

(list 2 #true)

procedure

(rest x)  any/c

  x : cons?
Selects the rest of a non-empty list.
> x

(list 2 "hello" #true)

> (rest x)

(list "hello" #true)

procedure

(reverse l)  list

  l : list?
Creates a reversed version of a list.
> x

(list 2 "hello" #true)

> (reverse x)

(list #true "hello" 2)

procedure

(second x)  any/c

  x : list?
Selects the second item of a non-empty list.
> x

(list 2 "hello" #true)

> (second x)

"hello"

procedure

(seventh x)  any/c

  x : list?
Selects the seventh item of a non-empty list.
> v

(list 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 'A)

> (seventh v)

7

procedure

(sixth x)  any/c

  x : list?
Selects the sixth item of a non-empty list.
> v

(list 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 'A)

> (sixth v)

6

procedure

(third x)  any/c

  x : list?
Selects the third item of a non-empty list.
> x

(list 2 "hello" #true)

> (third x)

#true

8 Posns

procedure

(make-posn x y)  posn

  x : any/c
  y : any/c
Constructs a posn from two arbitrary values.
> (make-posn 3 3)

(make-posn 3 3)

> (make-posn "hello" #true)

(make-posn "hello" #true)

procedure

(posn-x p)  any

  p : posn
Extracts the x component of a posn.
> p

(make-posn 2 -3)

> (posn-x p)

2

procedure

(posn-y p)  any

  p : posn
Extracts the y component of a posn.
> p

(make-posn 2 -3)

> (posn-y p)

-3

procedure

(posn? x)  boolean?

  x : any/c
Determines if its input is a posn.
> q

(make-posn "bye" 2)

> (posn? q)

#true

> (posn? 42)

#false

procedure

(set-posn-x! p x)  void?

  p : posn
  x : any
Updates the x component of a posn.
> p

(make-posn 2 -3)

> (set-posn-x! p 678)
> p

(make-posn 678 -3)

procedure

(set-posn-y! p x)  void

  p : posn
  x : any
Updates the y component of a posn.
> q

(make-posn "bye" 2)

> (set-posn-y! q 678)
> q

(make-posn "bye" 678)

9 Characters

procedure

(char->integer c)  integer

  c : char
Looks up the number that corresponds to the given character in the ASCII table (if any).
> (char->integer #\a)

97

> (char->integer #\z)

122

procedure

(char-alphabetic? c)  boolean?

  c : char
Determines whether a character represents an alphabetic character.
> (char-alphabetic? #\Q)

#true

procedure

(char-ci<=? c d e ...)  boolean?

  c : char
  d : char
  e : char
Determines whether the characters are ordered in an increasing and case-insensitive manner.
> (char-ci<=? #\b #\B)

#true

> (char<=? #\b #\B)

#false

procedure

(char-ci<? c d e ...)  boolean?

  c : char
  d : char
  e : char
Determines whether the characters are ordered in a strictly increasing and case-insensitive manner.
> (char-ci<? #\B #\c)

#true

> (char<? #\b #\B)

#false

procedure

(char-ci=? c d e ...)  boolean?

  c : char
  d : char
  e : char
Determines whether two characters are equal in a case-insensitive manner.
> (char-ci=? #\b #\B)

#true

procedure

(char-ci>=? c d e ...)  boolean?

  c : char
  d : char
  e : char
Determines whether the characters are sorted in a decreasing and case-insensitive manner.
> (char-ci>=? #\b #\C)

#false

> (char>=? #\b #\C)

#true

procedure

(char-ci>? c d e ...)  boolean?

  c : char
  d : char
  e : char
Determines whether the characters are sorted in a strictly decreasing and case-insensitive manner.
> (char-ci>? #\b #\B)

#false

> (char>? #\b #\B)

#true

procedure

(char-downcase c)  char

  c : char
Produces the equivalent lower-case character.
> (char-downcase #\T)

#\t

procedure

(char-lower-case? c)  boolean?

  c : char
Determines whether a character is a lower-case character.
> (char-lower-case? #\T)

#false

procedure

(char-numeric? c)  boolean?

  c : char
Determines whether a character represents a digit.
> (char-numeric? #\9)

#true

procedure

(char-upcase c)  char

  c : char
Produces the equivalent upper-case character.
> (char-upcase #\t)

#\T

procedure

(char-upper-case? c)  boolean?

  c : char
Determines whether a character is an upper-case character.
> (char-upper-case? #\T)

#true

procedure

(char-whitespace? c)  boolean?

  c : char
Determines whether a character represents space.
> (char-whitespace? #\tab)

#true

procedure

(char<=? c d e ...)  boolean?

  c : char
  d : char
  e : char
Determines whether the characters are ordered in a strictly increasing manner.
> (char<=? #\a #\a #\b)

#true

procedure

(char<? x d e ...)  boolean?

  x : char
  d : char
  e : char
Determines whether the characters are ordered in a strictly increasing manner.
> (char<? #\a #\b #\c)

#true

procedure

(char=? c d e ...)  boolean?

  c : char
  d : char
  e : char
Determines whether the characters are equal.
> (char=? #\b #\a)

#false

procedure

(char>=? c d e ...)  boolean?

  c : char
  d : char
  e : char
Determines whether the characters are sorted in a decreasing manner.
> (char>=? #\b #\b #\a)

#true

procedure

(char>? c d e ...)  boolean?

  c : char
  d : char
  e : char
Determines whether the characters are sorted in a strictly decreasing manner.
> (char>? #\A #\z #\a)

#false

procedure

(char? x)  boolean?

  x : any/c
Determines whether a value is a character.
> (char? "a")

#false

> (char? #\a)

#true

10 Strings

procedure

(explode s)  (listof string)

  s : string
Translates a string into a list of 1-letter strings.
> (explode "cat")

(list "c" "a" "t")

procedure

(format f x ...)  string

  f : string
  x : any/c
Formats a string, possibly embedding values.
> (format "Dear Dr. ~a:" "Flatt")

"Dear Dr. Flatt:"

> (format "Dear Dr. ~s:" "Flatt")

"Dear Dr. \"Flatt\":"

> (format "the value of ~s is ~a" '(+ 1 1) (+ 1 1))

"the value of (+ 1 1) is 2"

procedure

(implode l)  string

  l : list?
Concatenates the list of 1-letter strings into one string.
> (implode (cons "c" (cons "a" (cons "t" '()))))

"cat"

procedure

(int->string i)  string

  i : integer
Converts an integer in [0,55295] or [57344 1114111] to a 1-letter string.
> (int->string 65)

"A"

procedure

(list->string l)  string

  l : list?
Converts a s list of characters into a string.
> (list->string (cons #\c (cons #\a (cons #\t '()))))

"cat"

procedure

(make-string i c)  string

  i : natural-number
  c : char
Produces a string of length i from c.
> (make-string 3 #\d)

"ddd"

procedure

(replicate i s)  string

  i : natural-number
  s : string
Replicates s i times.
> (replicate 3 "h")

"hhh"

procedure

(string c ...)  string?

  c : char
Builds a string of the given characters.
> (string #\d #\o #\g)

"dog"

procedure

(string->int s)  integer

  s : string
Converts a 1-letter string to an integer in [0,55295] or [57344, 1114111].
> (string->int "a")

97

procedure

(string->list s)  (listof char)

  s : string
Converts a string into a list of characters.
> (string->list "hello")

(list #\h #\e #\l #\l #\o)

procedure

(string->number s)  (union number #false)

  s : string
Converts a string into a number, produce false if impossible.
> (string->number "-2.03")

#i-2.03

> (string->number "1-2i")

1-2i

procedure

(string->symbol s)  symbol

  s : string
Converts a string into a symbol.
> (string->symbol "hello")

'hello

procedure

(string-alphabetic? s)  boolean?

  s : string
Determines whether all ’letters’ in the string are alphabetic.
> (string-alphabetic? "123")

#false

> (string-alphabetic? "cat")

#true

procedure

(string-append s ...)  string

  s : string
Concatenates the characters of several strings.
> (string-append "hello" " " "world" " " "good bye")

"hello world good bye"

procedure

(string-ci<=? s t x ...)  boolean?

  s : string
  t : string
  x : string
Determines whether the strings are ordered in a lexicographically increasing and case-insensitive manner.
> (string-ci<=? "hello" "WORLD" "zoo")

#true

procedure

(string-ci<? s t x ...)  boolean?

  s : string
  t : string
  x : string
Determines whether the strings are ordered in a lexicographically strictly increasing and case-insensitive manner.
> (string-ci<? "hello" "WORLD" "zoo")

#true

procedure

(string-ci=? s t x ...)  boolean?

  s : string
  t : string
  x : string
Determines whether all strings are equal, character for character, regardless of case.
> (string-ci=?  "hello" "HellO")

#true

procedure

(string-ci>=? s t x ...)  boolean?

  s : string
  t : string
  x : string
Determines whether the strings are ordered in a lexicographically decreasing and case-insensitive manner.
> (string-ci>?  "zoo" "WORLD" "hello")

#true

procedure

(string-ci>? s t x ...)  boolean?

  s : string
  t : string
  x : string
Determines whether the strings are ordered in a lexicographically strictly decreasing and case-insensitive manner.
> (string-ci>?  "zoo" "WORLD" "hello")

#true

procedure

(string-contains-ci? s t)  boolean?

  s : string
  t : string
Determines whether the first string appears in the second one without regard to the case of the letters.
> (string-contains-ci? "At" "caT")

#true

procedure

(string-contains? s t)  boolean?

  s : string
  t : string
Determines whether the first string appears literally in the second one.
> (string-contains? "at" "cat")

#true

procedure

(string-copy s)  string

  s : string
Copies a string.
> (string-copy "hello")

"hello"

procedure

(string-downcase s)  string

  s : string
Produces a string like the given one with all ’letters’ as lower case.
> (string-downcase "CAT")

"cat"

> (string-downcase "cAt")

"cat"

procedure

(string-ith s i)  1string?

  s : string
  i : natural-number
Extracts the ith 1-letter substring from s.
> (string-ith "hello world" 1)

"e"

procedure

(string-length s)  nat

  s : string
Determines the length of a string.
> (string-length "hello world")

11

procedure

(string-lower-case? s)  boolean?

  s : string
Determines whether all ’letters’ in the string are lower case.
> (string-lower-case? "CAT")

#false

procedure

(string-numeric? s)  boolean?

  s : string
Determines whether all ’letters’ in the string are numeric.
> (string-numeric? "123")

#true

> (string-numeric? "1-2i")

#false

procedure

(string-ref s i)  char

  s : string
  i : natural-number
Extracts the ith character from s.
> (string-ref "cat" 2)

#\t

procedure

(string-upcase s)  string

  s : string
Produces a string like the given one with all ’letters’ as upper case.
> (string-upcase "cat")

"CAT"

> (string-upcase "cAt")

"CAT"

procedure

(string-upper-case? s)  boolean?

  s : string
Determines whether all ’letters’ in the string are upper case.
> (string-upper-case? "CAT")

#true

procedure

(string-whitespace? s)  boolean?

  s : string
Determines whether all ’letters’ in the string are white space.
> (string-whitespace? (string-append " " (string #\tab #\newline #\return)))

#true

procedure

(string<=? s t x ...)  boolean?

  s : string
  t : string
  x : string
Determines whether the strings are ordered in a lexicographically increasing manner.
> (string<=? "hello" "hello" "world" "zoo")

#true

procedure

(string<? s t x ...)  boolean?

  s : string
  t : string
  x : string
Determines whether the strings are ordered in a lexicographically strictly increasing manner.
> (string<? "hello" "world" "zoo")

#true

procedure

(string=? s t x ...)  boolean?

  s : string
  t : string
  x : string
Determines whether all strings are equal, character for character.
> (string=? "hello" "world")

#false

> (string=? "bye" "bye")

#true

procedure

(string>=? s t x ...)  boolean?

  s : string
  t : string
  x : string
Determines whether the strings are ordered in a lexicographically decreasing manner.
> (string>=?  "zoo" "zoo" "world" "hello")

#true

procedure

(string>? s t x ...)  boolean?

  s : string
  t : string
  x : string
Determines whether the strings are ordered in a lexicographically strictly decreasing manner.
> (string>?  "zoo" "world" "hello")

#true

procedure

(string? x)  boolean?

  x : any/c
Determines whether a value is a string.
> (string? "hello world")

#true

> (string? 42)

#false

procedure

(substring s i j)  string

  s : string
  i : natural-number
  j : natural-number
Extracts the substring starting at i up to j (or the end if j is not provided).
> (substring "hello world" 1 5)

"ello"

> (substring "hello world" 4)

"o world"

11 Images

procedure

(image=? i j)  boolean?

  i : image
  j : image
Determines whether two images are equal.
> c1

image

> (image=? (circle 5 "solid" "green") c1)

#false

> (image=? (circle 10 "solid" "green") c1)

#true

procedure

(image? x)  boolean?

  x : any/c
Determines whether a value is an image.
> c1

image

> (image? c1)

#true

12 Misc

procedure

(=~ x y eps)  boolean?

  x : number
  y : number
  eps : non-negative-real
Checks whether x and y are within eps of either other.
> (=~ 1.01 1.0 0.1)

#true

> (=~ 1.01 1.5 0.1)

#false

procedure

(current-milliseconds)  exact-integer

Returns the current “time” in fixnum milliseconds (possibly negative).
> (current-milliseconds)

1517109839450

value

eof : eof-object?

A value that represents the end of a file:
> eof

#<eof>

procedure

(eof-object? x)  boolean?

  x : any/c
Determines whether some value is the end-of-file value.
> (eof-object? eof)

#true

> (eof-object? 42)

#false

procedure

(eq? x y)  boolean?

  x : any/c
  y : any/c
Determines whether two values are equivalent from the computer’s perspective (intensional).
> (eq? (cons 1 '()) (cons 1 '()))

#false

> one

(list 1)

> (eq? one one)

#true

procedure

(equal? x y)  boolean?

  x : any/c
  y : any/c
Determines whether two values are structurally equal where basic values are compared with the eqv? predicate.
> (equal? (make-posn 1 2) (make-posn (- 2 1) (+ 1 1)))

#true

procedure

(equal~? x y z)  boolean?

  x : any/c
  y : any/c
  z : non-negative-real
Compares x and y like equal? but uses =~ in the case of numbers.
> (equal~? (make-posn 1.01 1.0) (make-posn 1.01 0.99) 0.2)

#true

procedure

(eqv? x y)  boolean?

  x : any/c
  y : any/c
Determines whether two values are equivalent from the perspective of all functions that can be applied to it (extensional).
> (eqv? (cons 1 '()) (cons 1 '()))

#false

> one

(list 1)

> (eqv? one one)

#true

procedure

(error x ...)  void?

  x : any/c
Signals an error, combining the given values into an error message. If any of the values’ printed representations is too long, it is truncated and “...” is put into the string. If the first value is a symbol, it is suffixed with a colon and the result pre-pended on to the error message.
> zero

0

> (if (= zero 0) (error "can't divide by 0") (/ 1 zero))

can't divide by 0

procedure

(exit)  void

Evaluating (exit) terminates the running program.

procedure

(force v)  any

  v : any
Finds the delayed value; see also delay.

procedure

(gensym)  symbol?

Generates a new symbol, different from all symbols in the program.
> (gensym)

'g8193

procedure

(identity x)  any

  x : any/c
Returns x.
> (identity 42)

42

> (identity c1)

image

> (identity "hello")

"hello"

procedure

(promise? x)  boolean?

  x : any
Determines if a value is delayed.

procedure

(sleep sec)  void

  sec : positive-num
Causes the program to sleep for the given number of seconds.

procedure

(struct? x)  boolean?

  x : any/c
Determines whether some value is a structure.
> (struct? (make-posn 1 2))

#true

> (struct? 43)

#false

procedure

(void)  void?

Produces a void value.
> (void)

procedure

(void? x)  boolean?

  x : any
Determines if a value is void.
> (void? (void))

#true

> (void? 42)

#false

13 Numbers (relaxed conditions)

procedure

(* x ...)  number

  x : number
Multiplies all given numbers. In ISL and up: * works when applied to only one number or none.
> (* 5 3)

15

> (* 5 3 2)

30

> (* 2)

2

> (*)

1

procedure

(+ x ...)  number

  x : number
Adds all given numbers. In ISL and up: + works when applied to only one number or none.
> (+ 2/3 1/16)

35/48

> (+ 3 2 5 8)

18

> (+ 1)

1

> (+)

0

procedure

(/ x y ...)  number

  x : number
  y : number
Divides the first by all remaining numbers. In ISL and up: / computes the inverse when applied to one number.
> (/ 12 2)

6

> (/ 12 2 3)

2

> (/ 3)

1/3

14 Posn

procedure

(posn)  signature

Signature for posns.

15 Higher-Order Functions

procedure

(andmap p? [l])  boolean

  p? : (X ... -> boolean)
  l : (listof X) = ...
Determines whether p? holds for all items of l ...:
(andmap p (list x-1 ... x-n)) = (and (p x-1) ... (p x-n))
(andmap p (list x-1 ... x-n) (list y-1 ... y-n)) = (and (p x-1 y-1) ... (p x-n y-n))
> (andmap odd? '(1 3 5 7 9))

#true

> threshold

3

> (andmap (lambda (x) (< x threshold)) '(0 1 2))

#true

> (andmap even? '())

#true

> (andmap (lambda (x f) (f x)) (list 0 1 2) (list odd? even? positive?))

#false

procedure

(apply f x-1 ... l)  Y

  f : (X-1 ... X-N -> Y)
  x-1 : X-1
  l : (list X-i+1 ... X-N)
Applies a function using items from a list as the arguments:
(apply f (list x-1 ... x-n)) = (f x-1 ... x-n)
> a-list

(list 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9)

> (apply max a-list)

9

procedure

(argmax f l)  X

  f : (X -> real)
  l : (listof X)
Finds the (first) element of the list that maximizes the output of the function.
> (argmax second '((sam 98) (carl 78) (vincent 93) (asumu 99)))

(list 'asumu 99)

procedure

(argmin f l)  X

  f : (X -> real)
  l : (listof X)
Finds the (first) element of the list that minimizes the output of the function.
> (argmin second '((sam 98) (carl 78) (vincent 93) (asumu 99)))

(list 'carl 78)

procedure

(build-list n f)  (listof X)

  n : nat
  f : (nat -> X)
Constructs a list by applying f to the numbers between 0 and (- n 1):
(build-list n f) = (list (f 0) ... (f (- n 1)))
> (build-list 22 add1)

(list 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22)

> i

3

> (build-list 3 (lambda (j) (+ j i)))

(list 3 4 5)

> (build-list 5
    (lambda (i)
      (build-list 5
        (lambda (j)
          (if (= i j) 1 0)))))

(list (list 1 0 0 0 0) (list 0 1 0 0 0) (list 0 0 1 0 0) (list 0 0 0 1 0) (list 0 0 0 0 1))

procedure

(build-string n f)  string

  n : nat
  f : (nat -> char)
Constructs a string by applying f to the numbers between 0 and (- n 1):
(build-string n f) = (string (f 0) ... (f (- n 1)))
> (build-string 10 integer->char)

"\u0000\u0001\u0002\u0003\u0004\u0005\u0006\a\b\t"

> (build-string 26 (lambda (x) (integer->char (+ 65 x))))

"ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ"

procedure

(compose f g)  (X -> Z)

  f : (Y -> Z)
  g : (X -> Y)
Composes a sequence of procedures into a single procedure:
(compose f g) = (lambda (x) (f (g x)))
> ((compose add1 second) '(add 3))

4

> (map (compose add1 second) '((add 3) (sub 2) (mul 4)))

(list 4 3 5)

procedure

(filter p? l)  (listof X)

  p? : (X -> boolean)
  l : (listof X)
Constructs a list from all those items on a list for which the predicate holds.
> (filter odd? '(0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9))

(list 1 3 5 7 9)

> threshold

3

> (filter (lambda (x) (>= x threshold)) '(0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9))

(list 3 4 5 6 7 8 9)

procedure

(foldl f base l ...)  Y

  f : (X ... Y -> Y)
  base : Y
  l : (listof X)
(foldl f base (list x-1 ... x-n)) = (f x-n ... (f x-1 base))
(foldl f base (list x-1 ... x-n) (list x-1 ... x-n))
 = (f x-n y-n ... (f x-1 y-1 base))
> (foldl + 0 '(0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9))

45

> a-list

(list 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9)

> (foldl (lambda (x r) (if (> x threshold) (cons (* 2 x) r) r)) '() a-list)

(list 18 16 14 12 10 8)

> (foldl (lambda (x y r) (+ x y r)) 0 '(1 2 3) '(10 11 12))

39

procedure

(foldr f base l ...)  Y

  f : (X ... Y -> Y)
  base : Y
  l : (listof X)
(foldr f base (list x-1 ... x-n)) = (f x-1 ... (f x-n base))
(foldr f base (list x-1 ... x-n) (list y-1 ... y-n))
 = (f x-1 y-1 ... (f x-n y-n base))
> (foldr + 0 '(0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9))

45

> a-list

(list 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9)

> (foldr (lambda (x r) (if (> x threshold) (cons (* 2 x) r) r)) '() a-list)

(list 8 10 12 14 16 18)

> (foldr (lambda (x y r) (+ x y r)) 0 '(1 2 3) '(10 11 12))

39

procedure

(for-each f l ...)  void?

  f : (any ... -> any)
  l : (listof any)
Applies a function to each item on one or more lists for effect only:
(for-each f (list x-1 ... x-n)) = (begin (f x-1) ... (f x-n))
> (for-each (lambda (x) (begin (display x) (newline))) '(1 2 3))

1

2

3

procedure

(map f l ...)  (listof Z)

  f : (X ... -> Z)
  l : (listof X)
Constructs a new list by applying a function to each item on one or more existing lists:
(map f (list x-1 ... x-n)) = (list (f x-1) ... (f x-n))
(map f (list x-1 ... x-n) (list y-1 ... y-n)) = (list (f x-1 y-1) ... (f x-n y-n))
> (map add1 '(3 -4.01 2/5))

(list 4 #i-3.01 1.4)

> (map (lambda (x) (list 'my-list (+ x 1))) '(3 -4.01 2/5))

(list (list 'my-list 4) (list 'my-list #i-3.01) (list 'my-list 1.4))

> (map (lambda (x y) (+ x (* x y))) '(3 -4 2/5) '(1 2 3))

(list 6 -12 1.6)

procedure

(memf p? l)  (union #false (listof X))

  p? : (X -> any)
  l : (listof X)
Produces #false if p? produces false for all items on l. If p? produces #true for any of the items on l, memf returns the sub-list starting from that item.
> (memf odd? '(2 4 6 3 8 0))

(list 3 8 0)

procedure

(ormap p? l)  boolean

  p? : (X -> boolean)
  l : (listof X)
Determines whether p? holds for at least one items of l:
(ormap p (list x-1 ... x-n)) = (or (p x-1) ... (p x-n))
(ormap p (list x-1 ... x-n) (list y-1 ... y-n)) = (or (p x-1 y-1) ... (p x-n y-n))
> (ormap odd? '(1 3 5 7 9))

#true

> threshold

3

> (ormap (lambda (x) (< x threshold)) '(6 7 8 1 5))

#true

> (ormap even? '())

#false

> (ormap (lambda (x f) (f x)) (list 0 1 2) (list odd? even? positive?))

#true

procedure

(procedure? x)  boolean?

  x : any
Produces true if the value is a procedure.
> (procedure? cons)

#true

> (procedure? add1)

#true

> (procedure? (lambda (x) (> x 22)))

#true

procedure

(quicksort l comp)  (listof X)

  l : (listof X)
  comp : (X X -> boolean)
Sorts the items on l, in an order according to comp (using the quicksort algorithm).
> (quicksort '(6 7 2 1 3 4 0 5 9 8) <)

(list 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9)

procedure

(sort l comp)  (listof X)

  l : (listof X)
  comp : (X X -> boolean)
Sorts the items on l, in an order according to comp.
> (sort '(6 7 2 1 3 4 0 5 9 8) <)

(list 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9)

16 Reading and Printing

procedure

(display x)  void

  x : any
Prints the argument to stdout (without quotes on symbols and strings, etc.).
> (display 10)

10

> (display "hello")

hello

> (display 'hello)

hello

procedure

(newline)  void

Prints a newline.

procedure

(pretty-print x)  void

  x : any
Pretty prints S-expressions (like write).
> (pretty-print '((1 2 3) ((a) ("hello world" #true) (((false "good bye"))))))

((1 2 3) ((a) ("hello world" #true) (((false "good bye")))))

> (pretty-print (build-list 10 (lambda (i) (build-list 10 (lambda (j) (= i j))))))

((#true #false #false #false #false #false #false #false #false #false)

 (#false #true #false #false #false #false #false #false #false #false)

 (#false #false #true #false #false #false #false #false #false #false)

 (#false #false #false #true #false #false #false #false #false #false)

 (#false #false #false #false #true #false #false #false #false #false)

 (#false #false #false #false #false #true #false #false #false #false)

 (#false #false #false #false #false #false #true #false #false #false)

 (#false #false #false #false #false #false #false #true #false #false)

 (#false #false #false #false #false #false #false #false #true #false)

 (#false #false #false #false #false #false #false #false #false #true))

procedure

(print x)  void

  x : any
Prints the argument as a value.
> (print 10)

10

> (print "hello")

"hello"

> (print 'hello)

'hello

procedure

(printf f x ...)  void

  f : string
  x : any
Formats the rest of the arguments according to the first argument and print it.

procedure

(read)  sexp

Reads input from the user.

procedure

(with-input-from-file f p)  any

  f : string
  p : (-> any)
Opens the named input file f and allows p to read from it.

procedure

(with-input-from-string s p)  any

  s : string
  p : (-> any)
Turns s into input for read operations in p.
> (with-input-from-string "hello" read)

'hello

> (string-length (symbol->string (with-input-from-string "hello" read)))

5

procedure

(with-output-to-file f p)  any

  f : string
  p : (-> any)
Opens the named input file f and allows p to write to it.

procedure

(with-output-to-string p)  any

  p : (-> any)
Produces a string from all write/display/print operations in p.
> (with-output-to-string (lambda () (display 10)))

"10"

procedure

(write x)  void

  x : any
Prints the argument to stdout (in a traditional style that is somewhere between print and display).
> (write 10)

10

> (write "hello")

"hello"

> (write 'hello)

hello

17 Vectors

procedure

(build-vector n f)  (vectorof X)

  n : nat
  f : (nat -> X)
Constructs a vector by applying f to the numbers 0 through (- n 1).
> (build-vector 5 add1)

(vector 1 2 3 4 5)

procedure

(list->vector l)  (vectorof X)

  l : (listof X)
Transforms l into a vector.
> (list->vector (list "hello" "world" "good" "bye"))

(vector "hello" "world" "good" "bye")

procedure

(make-vector n x)  (vectorof X)

  n : number
  x : X
Constructs a vector of n copies of x.
> (make-vector 5 0)

(vector 0 0 0 0 0)

procedure

(vector x ...)  (vector X ...)

  x : X
Constructs a vector from the given values.
> (vector 1 2 3 -1 -2 -3)

(vector 1 2 3 -1 -2 -3)

procedure

(vector->list v)  (listof X)

  v : (vectorof X)
Transforms v into a list.
> (vector->list (vector 'a 'b 'c))

(list 'a 'b 'c)

procedure

(vector-length v)  nat

  v : (vector X)
Determines the length of v.
> v

(vector "a" "b" "c" "d" "e")

> (vector-length v)

5

procedure

(vector-ref v n)  X

  v : (vector X)
  n : nat
Extracts the nth element from v.
> v

(vector "a" "b" "c" "d" "e")

> (vector-ref v 3)

"d"

procedure

(vector-set! v n x)  void

  v : (vectorof X)
  n : nat
  x : X
Updates v at position n to be x.
> v

(vector "a" "b" "c" "d" "e")

> (vector-set! v 3 77)
> v

(vector "a" "b" "c" 77 "e")

procedure

(vector? x)  boolean

  x : any
Determines if a value is a vector.
> v

(vector "a" "b" "c" 77 "e")

> (vector? v)

#true

> (vector? 42)

#false

18 Boxes

procedure

(box x)  box?

  x : any/c
Constructs a box.
> (box 42)

(box 42)

procedure

(box? x)  boolean?

  x : any/c
Determines if a value is a box.
> b

(box 33)

> (box? b)

#true

> (box? 42)

#false

procedure

(set-box! b x)  void

  b : box?
  x : any/c
Updates a box.
> b

(box 33)

> (set-box! b 31)
> b

(box 31)

procedure

(unbox b)  any

  b : box?
Extracts the boxed value.
> b

(box 31)

> (unbox b)

31

19 Hash Tables

procedure

(hash-copy h)  hash

  h : hash
Copies a hash table.

procedure

(hash-count h)  integer

  h : hash
Determines the number of keys mapped by a hash table.
> ish

(make-immutable-hash (list (cons 'e 61) (cons 'r 999) (cons 'c 42) (cons 'b 69)))

> (hash-count ish)

4

procedure

(hash-eq? h)  boolean

  h : hash
Determines if a hash table uses eq? for comparisons.
> hsh

(make-hash (list (cons 'b 69) (cons 'c 42) (cons 'e 61) (cons 'r 999)))

> (hash-eq? hsh)

#false

> heq

(make-hasheq (list (cons 'b 69) (cons 'c 42) (cons 'e 61) (cons 'r 999)))

> (hash-eq? heq)

#true

procedure

(hash-equal? h)  boolean

  h : hash?
Determines if a hash table uses equal? for comparisons.
> ish

(make-immutable-hash (list (cons 'e 61) (cons 'r 999) (cons 'c 42) (cons 'b 69)))

> (hash-equal? ish)

#true

> ieq

(make-immutable-hasheq (list (cons 'e 61) (cons 'r 999) (cons 'c 42) (cons 'b 69)))

> (hash-equal? ieq)

#false

procedure

(hash-eqv? h)  boolean

  h : hash
Determines if a hash table uses eqv? for comparisons.
> heq

(make-hasheq (list (cons 'b 69) (cons 'c 42) (cons 'e 61) (cons 'r 999)))

> (hash-eqv? heq)

#false

> heqv

(make-hasheqv (list (cons 'b 69) (cons 'c 42) (cons 'e 61) (cons 'r 999)))

> (hash-eqv? heqv)

#true

procedure

(hash-for-each h f)  void?

  h : (hash X Y)
  f : (X Y -> any)
Applies a function to each mapping of a hash table for effect only.
> hsh

(make-hash (list (cons 'b 69) (cons 'c 42) (cons 'e 61) (cons 'r 999)))

> (hash-for-each hsh (lambda (ky vl) (hash-set! hsh ky (+ vl 1))))
> hsh

(make-hash (list (cons 'b 70) (cons 'c 43) (cons 'e 62) (cons 'r 1000)))

procedure

(hash-has-key? h x)  boolean

  h : (hash X Y)
  x : X
Determines if a key is associated with a value in a hash table.
> ish

(make-immutable-hash (list (cons 'e 61) (cons 'r 999) (cons 'c 42) (cons 'b 69)))

> (hash-has-key? ish 'b)

#true

> hsh

(make-hash (list (cons 'b 70) (cons 'c 43) (cons 'e 62) (cons 'r 1000)))

> (hash-has-key? hsh 'd)

#false

procedure

(hash-map h f)  (listof Z)

  h : (hash X Y)
  f : (X Y -> Z)
Constructs a new list by applying a function to each mapping of a hash table.
> ish

(make-immutable-hash (list (cons 'e 61) (cons 'r 999) (cons 'c 42) (cons 'b 69)))

> (hash-map ish list)

(list (list 'e 61) (list 'r 999) (list 'c 42) (list 'b 69))

procedure

(hash-ref h k)  Y

  h : (hash X Y)
  k : X
Extracts the value associated with a key from a hash table; the three ; argument case allows a default value or default value computation.
> hsh

(make-hash (list (cons 'b 70) (cons 'c 43) (cons 'e 62) (cons 'r 1000)))

> (hash-ref hsh 'b)

70

procedure

(hash-ref! h k v)  Y

  h : (hash X Y)
  k : X
  v : Y
Extracts the value associated with a key from a mutable hash table; if ; the key does not have an mapping, the third argument is used as the ; value (or used to compute the value) and is added to the hash table ; associated with the key.
> hsh

(make-hash (list (cons 'b 70) (cons 'c 43) (cons 'e 62) (cons 'r 1000)))

> (hash-ref! hsh 'd 99)

99

> hsh

(make-hash (list (cons 'b 70) (cons 'c 43) (cons 'd 99) (cons 'e 62) (cons 'r 1000)))

procedure

(hash-remove h k)  (hash X Y)

  h : (hash X Y)
  k : X
Constructs an immutable hash table with one less mapping than an existing immutable hash table.
> ish

(make-immutable-hash (list (cons 'e 61) (cons 'r 999) (cons 'c 42) (cons 'b 69)))

> (hash-remove ish 'b)

(make-immutable-hash (list (cons 'e 61) (cons 'r 999) (cons 'c 42)))

procedure

(hash-remove! h x)  void

  h : (hash X Y)
  x : X
Removes an mapping from a mutable hash table.
> hsh

(make-hash (list (cons 'b 70) (cons 'c 43) (cons 'd 99) (cons 'e 62) (cons 'r 1000)))

> (hash-remove! hsh 'r)
> hsh

(make-hash (list (cons 'b 70) (cons 'c 43) (cons 'd 99) (cons 'e 62)))

procedure

(hash-set h k v)  (hash X Y)

  h : (hash X Y)
  k : X
  v : Y
Constructs an immutable hash table with one new mapping from an existing immutable hash table.
> (hash-set ish 'a 23)

(make-immutable-hash (list (cons 'a 23) (cons 'e 61) (cons 'r 999) (cons 'c 42) (cons 'b 69)))

procedure

(hash-set! h k v)  void?

  h : (hash X Y)
  k : X
  v : Y
Updates a mutable hash table with a new mapping.
> hsh

(make-hash (list (cons 'b 70) (cons 'c 43) (cons 'd 99) (cons 'e 62)))

> (hash-set! hsh 'a 23)
> hsh

(make-hash (list (cons 'b 70) (cons 'c 43) (cons 'd 99) (cons 'e 62) (cons 'a 23)))

procedure

(hash-update h k f)  (hash X Y)

  h : (hash X Y)
  k : X
  f : (Y -> Y)
Composes hash-ref and hash-set to update an existing mapping; the third ; argument is used to compute the new mapping value; the fourth ; argument is used as the third argument to hash-ref.
> (hash-update ish 'b (lambda (old-b) (+ old-b 1)))

(make-immutable-hash (list (cons 'e 61) (cons 'r 999) (cons 'c 42) (cons 'b 70)))

procedure

(hash-update! h k f)  void?

  h : (hash X Y)
  k : X
  f : (Y -> Y)
Composes hash-ref and hash-set! to update an existing mapping; the ; third argument is used to compute the new mapping value; the fourth ; argument is used as the third argument to hash-ref.
> hsh

(make-hash (list (cons 'b 70) (cons 'c 43) (cons 'd 99) (cons 'e 62) (cons 'a 23)))

> (hash-update! hsh 'b (lambda (old-b) (+ old-b 1)))
> hsh

(make-hash (list (cons 'b 71) (cons 'c 43) (cons 'd 99) (cons 'e 62) (cons 'a 23)))

procedure

(hash? x)  boolean

  x : any
Determines if a value is a hash table.
> ish

(make-immutable-hash (list (cons 'e 61) (cons 'r 999) (cons 'c 42) (cons 'b 69)))

> (hash? ish)

#true

> (hash? 42)

#false

procedure

(make-hash)  (hash X Y)

Constructs a mutable hash table from an optional list of mappings that uses equal? for comparisons.
> (make-hash)

(make-hash)

> (make-hash '((b 69) (e 61) (i 999)))

(make-hash (list (cons 'b 69) (cons 'e 61) (cons 'i 999)))

procedure

(make-hasheq)  (hash X Y)

Constructs a mutable hash table from an optional list of mappings that uses eq? for comparisons.
> (make-hasheq)

(make-hasheq)

> (make-hasheq '((b 69) (e 61) (i 999)))

(make-hasheq (list (cons 'b 69) (cons 'e 61) (cons 'i 999)))

procedure

(make-hasheqv)  (hash X Y)

Constructs a mutable hash table from an optional list of mappings that uses eqv? for comparisons.
> (make-hasheqv)

(make-hasheqv)

> (make-hasheqv '((b 69) (e 61) (i 999)))

(make-hasheqv (list (cons 'b 69) (cons 'e 61) (cons 'i 999)))

procedure

(make-immutable-hash)  (hash X Y)

Constructs an immutable hash table from an optional list of mappings that uses equal? for comparisons.
> (make-immutable-hash)

(make-immutable-hash)

> (make-immutable-hash '((b 69) (e 61) (i 999)))

(make-immutable-hash (list (cons 'e 61) (cons 'i 999) (cons 'b 69)))

procedure

(make-immutable-hasheq)  (hash X Y)

Constructs an immutable hash table from an optional list of mappings that uses eq? for comparisons.
> (make-immutable-hasheq)

(make-immutable-hasheq)

> (make-immutable-hasheq '((b 69) (e 61) (i 999)))

(make-immutable-hasheq (list (cons 'e 61) (cons 'i 999) (cons 'b 69)))

procedure

(make-immutable-hasheqv)  (hash X Y)

Constructs an immutable hash table from an optional list of mappings that uses eqv? for comparisons.
> (make-immutable-hasheqv)

(make-immutable-hasheqv)

> (make-immutable-hasheqv '((b 69) (e 61) (i 999)))

(make-immutable-hasheqv (list (cons 'e 61) (cons 'i 999) (cons 'b 69)))